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Improvised Powered Air-Purifying Respirator (iPAPR)


This project was done in collaboration with the National University Hospital, Singapore.


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, subsequent worldwide disruptions, and increased demand for personal protective equipment (PPE) have forced healthcare providers to ration or improvise, even in developed countries.

Key Problem(s)

Powered Air-Purifying Respirators (PAPR) are currently in high demand, with significant waiting times for procurement, and the price may be prohibitive. Traditional PAPRs are also bulky and have significant dead space in their long tubing.


We converted a full-face snorkel mask into an ultra-portable PAPR using cost-effective equipment and 3D printed adaptors. This was tested using an adapted version of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) guidelines for PAPR.

Project Contact

Yen Ching-Chiuan
didyc at nus.edu.sg

Team Members

Yen Ching-Chiuan

Eason Chow Wai Tung

Pravar Jain